The Per Capita think-tank today released a survey of attitudes on tax and spend. The number one point they extracted from the survey results was that ‘Australians want a more progressive tax system’:
95% of respondents believe that low income earners and middle income earners are taxed too much, while only 16% believe that high income earners pay too much tax. However, only 3% of those surveyed feel low and middle-income earners pay too little tax, whereas 53 per cent believe that high income earners do not pay enough.
But as Per Capita itself notes, almost nobody believes that they personally pay too much tax. One reason for this is that many higher-income earners have an erroneous view of how well off they are relative to the community as a whole. In a 2004 paper I reported survey research asking people to place themselves in income deciles. Only 2% of people thought they were in the top two deciles.
In the 2005 Australian Survey of Social Attitudes a vaguer question was used, asking respondents to compare themselves with average family incomes. Interpreting the results is a little complicated by the biggest single group in the sample earning $52,000 – $77,999 a year, covering the then (2006 census) median family range of $52,000-$62,000 (better than the average because of the distorting effects of very high incomes). Among families earning $78,000 or more a year, a third rated their income as average or below. For the group earning $52,000 or more, 45% perceived themselves as average or below.
Even for families making $182,000 a year or more, less than half rate themselves as earning ‘far above average’, even though they were earning triple the median family income.
The survey would have been more useful if it had guided resondents as to what it meant by ‘low’, ‘middle’ or ‘high’ incomes. Per Capita has assumed (reasonably enough) that incomes over $150,000 a year are ‘high’, but this is not in the survey questions.
But how much income tax do these high income earners pay? According to the ATO’s 2006-07 tax statistics people earning $140,000 or more pay about 28% of all income taxes. They are about 3% of all taxpayers. The top 10% of taxpayers pick up 45% of the total income tax bill. By contrast, the bottom 50% of taxpayers fund about 13% of the total income tax bill.
Though the public probably doesn’t perceive it, governments have roughly been following the preferences revealed by surveys like this one. Increases in tax receipts from upper income earners and companies (the survey favours more corporate tax) have funded the increases in health spending that the survey suggests people want. But responses to polls like this tend to be formulaic reflections of general priorities rather than informed judgments on what really happens.